While each high-risk pregnancy represents a unique set of circumstances and possibilities for the fetus, the following is a partial listing of common conditions addressed at the Ohio Fetal Medicine Collaborative.

Naturally, we invite you to ask questions about any of the conditions listed here, or any that are not on this list.

Abdominal Cysts

Abdominal cyst is a general term used to describe a rare, congenital (happening before birth) birth defect that causes an irregular mass of tissue to grow in your baby’s abdomen.

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Abdominal Wall Defects

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Gastroschisis

Omphalocele

Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a rare, congenital (existing at birth) brain defect where a structure called the corpus callosum does not develop normally.

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Bilateral Renal Agenesis

Bilateral renal agenesis (BRA) is a rare and fatal condition in which the baby’s kidneys never develop.

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Bladder Exstrophy

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Cleft Lip and Palate

A cleft lip is an opening in the lip that can extend to the nose. The cleft can be on one side or both sides of the lip and may extend through the gums and the palate as well. A cleft in the lip forms when the lip does not join during early development in pregnancy.

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Cloacal Extrophy

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Clubfoot

Clubfoot (congenital talipes equinovarus) is a common congenital (happening before birth) disorder that causes one or both of a baby’s feet to point downward and inward. The condition affects all parts of the foot including the muscles, bones, tendons and blood vessels.

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Congenital Anomalies of the Central Nervous System

Learn more about the following conditions:

Agenesis of the Corpus Collosum

Dandy Walker Syndrome

Congenital Anomalies of the Face

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Cleft Lip and Palate

Congenital Heart Defects

A defect in the heart happens when either the heart, or the blood vessels that connect to the heart, do not develop normally before birth. The terms “congenital heart defect” and “congenital heart disease” both mean that the defect happened before birth.

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Congenital Intestinal Anomalies

Learn more about the following conditions:

Abdominal Cysts

Duodenal Atresia

Congenital Lung Malformations

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Lung Lesions

Congenital Orthopedic Anomalies

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Clubfoot

Congenital Problems in the Urinary System

The urinary system makes urine and removes impurities from the body. The urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, urethra, and the bladder. The kidneys make urine. The urine then travels through small tubes called ureters to the bladder. The bladder then empties the urine.

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Cystic Adenomatoid Malformations

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Dandy-Walker

Dandy-Walker Syndrome (DWS) is a congenital (happening before birth) condition where the cerebellum – an area at the back of the brain responsible for controlling movement and balance – doesn’t develop normally.

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Diaphragmatic Hernia

The diaphragm is a thin muscle that separates the chest from the belly. It moves up and down during breathing to help the lungs empty and fill with air. Sometimes when the baby is developing before birth, the muscles in the diaphragm do not grow together completely. This leaves an opening (hole) that allows the intestines to move up into the baby’s chest. The pressure of the intestines pushes the heart slightly to one side. This is called diaphragmatic hernia.

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Duodenal Atresia

The duodenum is the first part of the small bowel, located between the stomach and the remainder of the small intestine. It is directly connected to the stomach. Food digestion begins in the duodenum. Duodenal atresia is a narrowing or blockage in the duodenum. The narrowed area blocks the passage of food from the stomach moving freely into the intestine.

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Encephalocele

Encephalocele (pronounced en-sef-a-lo-seal) is a rare congenital (happening before birth) condition.

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Fetal Red Blood Cell or Platelet Alloimmunization

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Gastroschisis

Gastroschisis is when the abdominal wall does not properly close during development and some of the babies intestines form outside the body.

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Hydrocephalus

Hydrocephalus is when there is too much fluid inside or around the brain. This fluid is cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) — the clear fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord. Backup of CSF happens when it cannot drain from the brain or skull. The backup of CSF can cause the skull to become larger, can increase the pressure inside the brain, and can be harmful to the brain.

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Lung Lesions

Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (CCAM), Pulmonary Sequestration, and Congenital Lobar Emphysema are all terms describing a mass in the lung and chest of a fetus. They are a part of a group of lung problems called Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformations (CPAM).

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Neural Tube Defects

Learn more about the following conditions:

Spina Bifida

Encephalocele

Omphalocele

Omphalocele is a type of abdominal wall defect in which the intestines, liver, and occasionally other organs remain outside of the abdomen in a sac. This is due to a defect in the development of the muscles of the abdominal wall. An omphalocele can be small, containing parts of the intestine, or larger, containing parts of the liver and other organs.

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Spina Bifida

Spina bifida is a congenital (happening before birth) condition where a part of the baby’s spinal cord develops outside, instead of inside, the bones of the spine. The condition can be found during pregnancy, but some cases may not be discovered until after the baby is born.

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Trisomy 13

Trisomy 13, also called Patau Syndrome, is a life-threatening chromosomal abnormality that affects the way a baby’s major organs develop during pregnancy.

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Trisomy 18

Trisomy 18 is also called Edwards Syndrome. It is a life-threatening chromosomal problem that affects the way a baby’s major organs develop during pregnancy.

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Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome

Identical twins who share one placenta and one amniotic sac may be at risk for Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome, or TTTS.  This problem happens in about 15 percent of pregnancies with identical twins.

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